A controller is the most essential feature of an electric bike. This device acts as the electric bike’s brain and heart. To manage every aspect of the bike requires this controller. You may now wonder how to connect ebike controller. Well, this guide is all about the controller of an electric bike.
You can control the motor power, speed, acceleration, etc with the help of this controller. You should connect the controller’s power connector to the battery, the 3-phase, and the hall sensor connector to the motor. Lastly, attach the Thoreau cable connector to the throttle. To know the detailed process stay with this guide.
What Is an Ebike Controller?
A controller connects with all the electrical components of an electric bike. It directs energy to the motor after taking it from the battery. This device controls the motor’s speed and makes the bike start and stop. That means you can manage the overall functions of your e-bike using this controller.
You will find two types of controllers. They are-
- Brushless motor controller,
- Brushed DC motor controller, and
- BLDC controllers for motors with hall sensors.
Among the other controllers, the brushless DC motor is the most popular. As the name implies, they are brushless, also higher efficient, and featured with permanent magnets. Generally, the operation and service of this controller are very simple and convenient.
A brushed DC motor controller is designed with permanent magnets and collectors. This controller works simply with a set of keys that supplies the current to the engine.
BLDC controllers work with the hall sensors based on the hall effect. Hall sensors are also known as rotary encoders because they can determine the rotor’s position.
How Does the Electric Bike Controller Work?
The controller is composed of peripheral components and main chips that are known as microcontrollers. It consists of an AD circuit, PWM generator circuit, signal acquisition, power device driver circuit, power circuit, over-current, processing circuit, under-voltage protection circuit.
After connecting the controller with the battery, it uses the power circuit to supply the power voltage. It monitors the voltage of the battery, and when the voltage gets too high, it shuts the moor down. In the same way, with too low battery voltage, it stops the motor of the electric bike.
It detects the temperature of the field-effect transistors. By shutting down the motor when it gets too hot, it protects the FET power transistors. If excessive current supplies to the motor, it reduces supplying current to the monitor. In this way, it ensures the protection of both the FET and motor.
The best part is with the help of this controller people with joint issues can conveniently use electric bikes. They can use the Electric Bike for Arthritis by using the monitor power without pedaling.
How to Connect Ebike Controller
Different controllers come with different wire types and wire terminals. Therefore, you will require the controller wiring diagram to know how to connect ebike controller. Basically, the controller connects to the Ebike battery connection, hub motor, phase sensors, LCD display, throttle wires, and pas.
To connect with all these parts, controllers consist of 1 positive electrode, EBS brak, low potential brake, electric lock, reverse function. Also, alarm power supply, IGH potential brake, gear switch, alarm signal, negative electrode, cruise function, autometer signal. The list is not complete yet; it has hall sensor wires, handles accelerator, 2 intelligent identification, and 3 phase lines.
So you just have to connect them appropriately. Many e-bikes consist of an electronic switch to start and stop the motor. Generally, two types of switches are used like throttle and pas. Having an electric bike with both these switches are best to provide more benefits.
As each controller contains different color wires like black wire, yellow wire, green wire, so it will be tough to find out the connector wires. So, to break down the confusion, you can see this video. For your better convenience, we are providing the guidelines for finding the best for your electric bike.
Sine wave and square wave both have different advantages. Sine wave controllers are best for lower noise and greater efficiency for uphill riding. They can also offer predictable control and smoother operation.
Square wave controllers are more affordable and suitable for different motors. During sudden acceleration and braking, these controllers provide more efficiency. To have higher utilization of power voltage square wave controllers are the best.
Hall Sensor Drive:
If your electric bike’s motor comes with a hall sensor, the controller should also have a hall sensor or dual mode. The motor’s hall sensor identifies the motor’s rotation. After that, depending on that sensor signals, the controller outputs the corresponding voltage.
Hall sensor works in a more stable way and ensures less power consumption. If your bike’s motor gets damaged, this controller can prompt an error code. It can also seize the working of the bike if the dual-mode controller continues to work.
Controller Voltage and Current:
choosing the perfect voltage of a controller is not that tough. Simply match the controller voltage with your motor voltage, and that’s it.
In the case of selecting a current, the controller should come in a smaller current than the battery’s output current. Usually, the maximum current of a 6-MOSFET controller is 18A, 9-MOSFET controller is 25A, and 15-MOSFET controller is 40A.
The controller of an electric bike is the one that connects all the electronic components altogether. When you start pedaling or pull the throttle, the connected electrical switch starts creating full circuits to run the electricity. After that, this controller connects this circuit to the LCD screen and motor.
While going for a controller, just make sure its voltage power matches the battery voltage. This article shared how to connect ebike controller with the electric bike’s battery, motor, and throttle. Hopefully, you find these easy steps helpful now you can have the power of controlling the electric bike.